Professor Emeritus Bernard Spolsky

Professor Emeritus
Professor Emeritus Bernard Spolsky
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Fields of interest

Sociolinguistics

Language Policy

Educational Linguistics

Language Testing

Jewish Languages

Applied Linguistics

Public signage (sometimes called linguistic landscape)

CV

Education

1943-1948                Wellington College

1951                          B.A University of New Zealand

1953                          M.A. (Honours in English) University of New Zealand

1953                          New Zealand Trained Teacher’s Certificate

1966                          Ph.D. (linguistics) Université de Montréal

2008                          Hon.D. Litt Victoria University of Wellington

 

Academic ranks

1961-1964                Assistant Professor of Education, McGill University

1964-1968                Assistant Professor of Linguistics, Indian University

1968-1973                Associate Professor of Anthropology and Elementary Education, University of New mexico

1973-1980                Professor of Linguistics, Anthropology, and Elementary Education, University of New Mexico

1980-2000                Professor of English, Bar-Ilan University

2000-                        Professor Emeritus of English, Bar-Ilan University

 

Employment

1954-5                      Assistant Master,         Gisborne High School

1956                          Assistant Master, Caulfield Grammar School

1957-8                      Assistant Master, The Royal Russell School

1958-61                    Language teacher, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

1959-60                    Junior staff officer, Israel Defense Forces

1964-8                      Asst Professor and Director  EFL Program, Indiana University

1968-73                    Assoc Prof, Prof, Chair of Linguistics, Dean of the Graduate School, Director of the Navajo Reading Study, University of New Mexico

1980-2000                Professor, Chair of English, Dean of Humanities, Director of the Language Policy Research Center, Bar-Ilan University

 

Professional roles

1972-5                      Chair, Scientific commission on Language Tests AILA

1977-80                    Secretary Treasurer, American Association of Applied Linguistics

2003-                        Publications Executive Director, Journal Editor-in Chief, Asia TEFL

1986-2000                Member, Council on the Teaching of Hebrew

1982-90                    Co-Chair, Israel Academic Committee on Language Testing

1982-6                      Executive committee, Israel Association of Applied Linguistics

1988-97                    President, Israel Association of Applied Linguistics

1978-9                      President, International TESOL

1994-5                      President, International Association of Language Testers

2005-8                      Convenor, AILA Research Network on Language Policy

1990-2003                Chair, English Advisory Committee, Israeli Ministry of Education

1979-86                    Editor, Applied Linguistics

2002-7                      Editor, Language Policy

 

Research Grants

Ford Foundation, $5,000 for a study of attitudinal factors in second language learning 1967-8; $78,000 for the Navajo Reading Study 1971-5; through the Israel Foundations Trustees, $23,000 for a study with Robert Cooper of language choice and language spread in the Old City of Jerusalem 1983-5; through the Israel Foundations Trustees, $25,000 for a study with Robert Cooper and Muhammad Amara of sociolinguistic reflexes of attitudinal differences in a divided village in Israel, 1992-4.

German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research, DM 270,000, with Norbert Dittmar (Free University of Berlin) for a study of acquisition of Hebrew and German by immigrants from the former Soviet Union, 1998-2000.

John Nuveen & Co., $4,000, for a study of Navajo language maintenance, 1971.

Israel Ministry of Education, $320,000, with Elana Shohamy, for language policy studies, 1994-7; $120,000, with Elana Shohamy and Tamar Levin, for study of academic achievement of immigrant pupils.

National Institute of Education, $147,000, for a study with Guillermina Englebrecht and Leroy Ortiz of the sociolinguistics of literacy, 1979-82.

Netherlands Israel Research Program, $150,000, with Muhammad Amara, Kees de Bot and Hannah Tushyeh, for studies of Palestinian multilingualism & language policy, 1995-8.

University of New Mexico Research Allocations Committee, $2,000, for a study of Navajo dialects 1970-1.

U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, $104,401, for a study of the potential and effect of teaching Navajo children to read in their own language first, 1969-74.

 

Publications

Books authored

1.      Spolsky, Bernard. (1978). Educational linguistics: an introduction. Rowley, MA., Newbury House Publishers.

2.      Spolsky, Bernard. (1981). Educational linguistics: an introduction. Hiroshima., Bunka Hyoron Publishing Company. (Japanese translation by T. Makino).

3.      Spolsky, Bernard. (1989). Conditions for second language learning: introduction to a general theory. Oxford, Oxford University Press. (Awarded 1989 Kenneth W. Mildenberger Prize by the Modern Language Association of America and the 1990 Book Prize by the British Association for Applied Linguistics). URL: http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/guidance_articles/LoC_Conditions_Second_Lang_Learn?cc=gb

4.      Spolsky, Bernard and R. L. Cooper (1991). The languages of Jerusalem. Oxford, Clarendon Press.

5.      Spolsky, Bernard. (1995). Measured words: The development of objective language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.*

6.      Spolsky, Bernard. (1998). Sociolinguistics. Edited by H. G. Widdowson, Oxford Introductions to Language Study. Oxford: Oxford University Press. *

7.      Spolsky, Bernard, and Elana Shohamy. (1999). The languages of Israel: policy, ideology and practice. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.*

8.      Spolsky, Bernard.  (2004). Language policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chinese translation by Zhiguo Zhang, published by Commercial Press, Beijing 2011.*

9.      Spolsky, Bernard. (2009). Language Management, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Valodas Pārvaldiba, Latvian translation by Ina Druviete, published by Zinatne Publishers, Riga 2012.*

10.    Spolsky, Bernard. (2013). The Languages of the Jews: a sociolinguistic history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Books edited

11     Garvin, Paul and Bernard Spolsky, Ed. (1966). Computation in linguistics: a case book. Bloomington, Indiana Univ. Press.

12     Holm, A., P. Murphy, & Bernard Spolsky. (1970). Analytical bibliography of Navajo reading materials. Washington DC, United States Bureau of Indian Affairs.

13     Spolsky, Bernard, (ed.) (1972). The language education of minority children: selected readings. Rowley, MA., Newbury House Publishers.

14     Spolsky, Bernard, (ed.) (1974). The American Southwest. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Issue no. 2.

15     Sebeok, Thomas A., Arthur S. Abramson, Bernard Spolsky, et al., (eds.) (1974). Current trends in linguistics: linguistics and adjacent arts and sciences. The Hague, Mouton.

16     Jones, Randall and Bernard Spolsky, Ed. (1975). Testing language proficiency. Washington, D.C., Center for Applied Linguistics.

17,     Palmer, Leslie and Bernard Spolsky, Ed. (1975). Papers in language testing 1967-74. Washington D.C., TESOL.

18     Spolsky, Bernard and Robert L. Cooper, eds. (1977). Frontiers of bilingual education. Rowley, MA., Newbury House.

19     Spolsky, Bernard and R. L. Cooper, ed. (1978). Case studies in bilingual education. Rowley, MA. Newbury House.

20    Spolsky, Bernard, ed. (1978). Advances in language testing 2. Papers in Applied Linguistics. Washington, D.C., Center for Applied Linguistics.

21     Spolsky, Bernard, ed. (1979). Advances in language testing 1. Papers in Applied Linguistics. Washington, D.C., Center for Applied Linguistics.

22     Spolsky, Bernard, Ed. (1986). Language and education in multilingual settings. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters Ltd.

23     Cooper, R. L. and Bernard Spolsky, Ed. (1991). The influence of language on society and thought: essays in honor of the 65th birthday of Joshua A. Fishman. Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter.

24     Spolsky, Bernard, ed. 1999. Concise Encyclopedia of Educational Linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon.*

25     Cooper, Robert L., Shohamy, Elana, & Walters, Joel (Eds.). (2000). New perspectives in educational language policy: In honour of Bernard Dov Spolsky. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

26     Spolsky, Bernard & Francis M. Hult (Eds). (2008). Handbook of Educational Linguistics. Malden & Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

27     Choi, Yeon Hee, Spolsky, Bernard, & The Asia TEFL Editorial Committee (Eds.). (2007). English education in Asia: History and policies. Seoul, Korea: The Asian Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (Asia TEFL).

28.     Choi, Yeon Hee, & Spolsky, Bernard (Eds.). (2008). ELT Curriculum innovation and implementation in Asia. Seoul, Korea: The Asian Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (Asia TEFL).

29     Spolsky, Bernard (Guest editor). (2009). Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. Volume 29, Language testing and language policy. Cambridge,: Cambridge University Press.

30     Choi, Yeon Hee, & Spolsky, Bernard (Eds.). (2009). English language teacher education in Asia. Seoul, Korea: The Asian Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (Asia TEFL).

31     Moon, Young-in, & Spolsky, Bernard (Eds.). (2010). Language assessment in Asia: Local, regional or Global? Seoul: Asian Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language.

32     Spolsky, Berard & Moon, Young-In (Eds.) (2012). Primary school English-education in Asia. New York: Routledge.

33     Spolsky, Bernard (Ed.). (2012). The Cambridge Handbook of Language Policy. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.

 

Editing of journals

1.         Spolsky, Bernard & Henry Widdowson. (1979-1986). Editors, Applied Linguistics.  Oxford University Press. 4 issues each year.

2.         Spolsky, Bernard. (2001-2007). Editor-in-chief, Language Policy. Kluwer and later Springer. 4 issues each year. Editor emeritus 2007-.

3.         Spolsky, Bernard. (2003- ). Editor-in-chief, The Asia TEFL Journal.

Major research reports

1.         Spolsky, Bernard and R. L. Cooper (1983). The languages of Jerusalem; Arab-Jewish relations in the Old City. Final Report. Ramat-Gan, Bar-Ilan University.

2.         Spolsky, Bernard, G. Englebrecht, and L. Ortiz. (1983). The sociolinguistics of literacy: an historical and comparative study of five cases. Final Report. Albuquerque, The University of New Mexico.

3.         Spolsky, Bernard, Hanna Tushyeh, Muhammad Amara, and Kees de Bot. 1999. Language in Bethlehem. Final Report of the NIRP Project.

4.         Spolsky, B., Amara, M., Tushyeh, H., & de Bot, K. (2000). Languages in Bethlehem: The sociolinguistic transformation of a Palestinian town. Edited by Mirjam A.F. Ros-Tonen. NIRP Research for Policy Series 5. Amsterdam: NIRP.

5.         Dittmar, Norbert, Spolsky, Bernard, & Walters, Joel. (2002). Convergence and divergence in second language acquisition and use; an examination of immigrant identities in Germany and Israel (Final scientific report Contract No. G-0500-157.04/96 GIF). Ramat-Gan & Berlin: Bar-Ilan University & Free University.

Chapters in books, encyclopedia articles

1.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1966). Man-machine communication in programmed instruction. In P. Garvin and Bernard Spolsky, (eds.); Computation in linguistics: a case book. Bloomington, IN., Indiana University Press. 312-40.

2.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1967). Do they know enough English? In David Wigglesworth, (ed.) ATESL Selected Conference Papers. Washington DC, National Association for Foreign Student Affairs.

3.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1968). Linguistics and language pedagogy - applications or implications? In J. Alatis (ed.): Twentieth Annual Round Table on Languages and Linguistics. Washington, DC., Georgetown University Press. 143-55. Reprinted in M. Lester (ed.): Readings in applied transformational grammar. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1973. 269-83.

4.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1970). Navajo language maintenance: six-year-olds in 1969. Language Sciences ( 13): 19-24 Reprinted in F. Pialorsi (ed.): Teaching the bilingual. Tucson, AZ., The University of Arizona Press. 1974. 138-49. *

5.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1970). TESOL. In D.L. Lange (ed.): Britannica Review of Foreign Language Education. Chicago, Encyclopaedia Britannica Press. 19-24.

6.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1970). The language teacher in the computer age. In R. Lugton (ed.): Teaching English as a second language: current issues. New York, 99-118.

7.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1971). Reduced redundancy as a language testing tool. In G.E. Perren and J.L.M. Trim (eds.): Applications of linguistics: selected papers of the Second International Congress of Applied Linguistics, Cambridge, September 1969. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 383-90.*

8.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1971). The language barrier to education. In G.E. Perren (ed.): Interdisciplinary approaches to language. London, Center for Information on Language Teaching. 8-17.

9.     Spolsky, Bernard and W. Holm (1971). Bilingualism in the six-year-old Navajo child. In W. Mackey (ed.): Proceedings of the Conference on Child Language, Chicago, November 22-24 1971. Quebec, Laval University Press.*

10.   Spolsky, Bernard and W. Holm (1971). Literacy in the vernacular: the case of Navajo. Washington, DC, United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. Reprinted in R.W. Ewton and J. Ornstein (ed.): Studies in language and linguistics, 1972-3. El Paso, University of Texas at El Paso Press. 1973. 239-51*

11.   Spolsky, Bernard, Agnes Holm, and Wayne Holm. (1973). English loan words in the speech of young Navajo children. In Paul R. Turner (ed.): Bilingualism in the Southwest. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. 227-39.

12.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1973). What does it mean to know a language, or how do you get someone to perform his competence? In J.W. Oller and J.C. Richards (eds.): Focus on the learner: Pragmatic perspectives for the language teacher. Rowley, Mass., Newbury House Publishers. 164-76. Reprinted in K. Croft (ed.): Readings on English as a second language. New York, Winthrop Publishers. Second edition, 1975. 26-42.*

13.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1974). Linguistics and education: an overview. In T.A. Sebeok et al. (eds.): Current Trends in Linguistics: Linguistics and adjacent arts and sciences. The Hague, Mouton. 2021-6.

14.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1974). Linguistics and the language barrier to education. In T.A. Sebeok et al. (eds.): Current Trends in Linguistics. The Hague, Mouton. 2027-38.

15.   Spolsky, Bernard and J. Kari (1974). Athapaskan language maintenance and bilingualism. In G. Bills (ed.): Southwest areal linguistics. San Diego, CA., Institute for Cultural Pluralism, San Diego State University. 35-64.

16.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1974). The Navajo Reading Study: an illustration of the scope and nature of educational linguistics. In J. Quistgaard, H. Schwartz and H. Spong-Hanssen (eds.): Applied Linguistics: Problems and solutions: Proceedings of the Third Congress on Applied Linguistics, Copenhagen, 1972. Heidelberg, Julius Gros Verlag. 553-65.

17.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1975). Disadvantaged students in graduate study. Proceedings of the fifteenth meeting of the Council of Graduate Schools, 1666-7.

18.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1975). Prospects for the survival of the Navajo language. In M.D. Kinkade, K. Hale and O. Werner (eds.): Linguistics and Anthropology, in honor of C.F. Voegelin. Lisse, The Peter de Ridder Press. 597-606.

19.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1976). Bilingualism. In R. Wardaugh (ed.): A survey of applied linguistics. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press. 164-81.

20.   Spolsky, Bernard, Joanna Green, and John Read (1976). A model for the description, analysis and perhaps evaluation of bilingual education. In A. Verdoodt and R. Ksoljeth (eds.): Language in sociology. Louvain, Editions Peeters. 233-61.

21.   Spolsky, Bernard, John Read, and Alice Neundorf. (1976). Socio-economic implications of bilingual education on the Navajo Reservation. In A. Simoës (ed.): The Bilingual Child. New York, Academic Press. 113-41.

22.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1976). Innovations and developments: off-campus graduate programs at the University of New Mexico. In R. Moe (ed.) Proceedings of the 18th annual meeting of the Western Association of Graduate Schools. Tacoma, Washington, Pacific Lutheran Press. 77-9.

23.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1977) Preface to J-G. Savard, Bibliographie analytique de tests de langage. Quebec, Laval University Press.

24.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1977). Language testing: art or science. In G. Nickel (ed.): Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Applied Linguistics. Stuttgart, Hochschulverlag. 7-28.

25.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1977). The establishment of language education policy in multilingual societies. In Robert L. Cooper and Bernard Spolsky (eds.): Frontiers of bilingual education. Rowley, MA., Newbury House Publishers. 1-21.

26.   Spolsky, Bernard and Wayne Holm (1977). Bilingualism in the six-year-old Navajo child. In W. Mackey and T. Andersson (eds.): Bilingualism in early childhood. Rowley, Mass., Newbury House Publishers. 167-73.

27.   Spolsky, Bernard and J. Kari (1978). Trends in the study of Athapaskan language maintenance and bilingualism. In J.A. Fishman (ed.): Advances in the study of societal multilingualism. The Hague, Mouton. 635-64.

28.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1978). American Indian bilingual education. In R.L. Cooper and Bernard Spolsky (eds.): Case studies in bilingual education. Rowley, MA., Newbury House Publishers. 342-61.

29.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1978). Bilingual education in the United States. In J. Alatis (ed.): Georgetown Roundtable on Language and Linguistics 1978. Washington, Georgetown University Press. 268-84.

30.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1978). Centrifugal and centripetal forces in the organization of graduate education. In Proceedings of the 20th annual meeting of the Western Association of Graduate Schools. 55-9.

31.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1979). Problems in the assessment of the effect of language education policies in a multilingual society. E. Brière (ed.): Language development in a bilingual setting. Los Angeles, National Multicultural Materials Development Center. 141-55.

32.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1979). The comparative study of first and second language acquisition. In F.R. Eckman and A.J. Hastings (eds.): Studies in first and second language acquisition. Rowley, MA., Newbury House Publishers. 167-84.

33.   Spolsky, Bernard and J. W. Oller Jr. (1979). The Test of English as a Foreign Language. In Bernard Spolsky (ed.): Advances in language testing 1. Washington, D.C., Center for Applied Linguistics. 2-100.

34.   Spolsky B. (1980). Foreword to T. Makino, Acquisition order of English morphemes by Japanese adolescents. Hiroshima, Bunka Hyoron Publishing Company.

35.   Spolsky B. (1980). Preface to P. Rosier and W. Holm, The Rock Point experience: a longitudinal study of a Navajo school program. Washington, D.C., Center for Applied Linguistics.

36.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1980). The scope of educational linguistics. In R.B. Kaplan (ed.): On the scope of applied linguistics. Rowley, MA., Newbury House. 67-73.

37.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1981). Some ethical questions about language testing. In C. Klein-Braley and D.K. Stevenson (eds.): Practice and problems in language testing. Frankfurt am Main, Verlag Peter D. Lang. 5-30.

38.   Spolsky, Bernard and L. Boomer (1983). The modernization of Navajo. In J. Cobarrubias and J.A. Fishman (eds.): Progress in language planning: international perspectives. The Hague, Mouton. 235-52.

39.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1983) Forward to Maculaitis Assessment Program.

40.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1983). Fourteen years on - later thoughts on overall language proficiency. In A. Hughes and D. Porter (eds.): Current developments in language testing. London, Academic Press. 39-42.

41.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1984). The uses of language tests: an ethical envoi. In C. Rivera (ed.): Placement procedures in bilingual education: education and policy issues. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters Ltd. 3-7.

42.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1984). A note on the dangers of terminological innovation. In C. Rivera (ed.): Language proficiency and academic achievement. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters. 41-3.

43.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1985). Educational linguistics. In T. Husen and T.N. Postletwhaite (eds.): The International Encyclopedia of Education. Oxford, Pergamon. 3095-3100.

44.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1985). Jewish multilingualism in the first century: an essay in historical sociolinguistics. In J.A. Fishman (ed.): Readings in the sociology of Jewish languages. Leiden, E.J. Brill. 35-50.

45.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1985). Theories of second language learning: spying out the Promised Land. In B. Wheatley (ed.): Current Approaches to Second Language Acquisition. Bloomington, Indiana University Linguistics Club.

46.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1986). Overcoming language barriers to education in a multilingual world. In Bernard Spolsky (ed.): Language and education in multilingual settings. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters Ltd. 184-93.

47.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1987). Maori-English Bilingual Education. Final Report. New Zealand Department of Education.

48.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1988). Bilingualism. In F. Newmeyer (ed.): Linguistics: The Cambridge Survey. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 100-18.

49.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1988). Tests in sociolinguistics. In U. Ammon, N. Dittmar and K.J. Mattheir (eds.): Sociolinguistics: an international handbook of the science of language and society. Berlin, De Gruyter. 932-40.

50.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1988). The Samoan language in the New Zealand educational context. Final report. New Zealand Department of Education.

51.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1990). Social aspects of individual assessment. In J. de Jong and D.K. Stevenson (eds.): Individualizing the Assessment of Language Abilities. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters Ltd. 3-15.

52.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1991). Hebrew language revitalization within a general theory of second language learning. In R.L. Cooper and Bernard Spolsky (eds.): The influence of language on culture and thought: essays in honor of the 65th birthday of Joshua A. Fishman. Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter. 137-55.*

53.   Spolsky, Bernard. 1991. Control and democratization of sacred literacy. In Samuel Rodin (ed.): Encounters with Judaism: Jewish studies in a non-Jewish world. (Waikato Studies in Religion). Hamilton: Waikato University and Colcom Press, 1991. 37-53*

54.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1991). Linguistic rights in a post-colonial world. In V. Bickley (ed.): Where from here? Hong Kong, Hong Kong Government.

55.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1992). The gentle art of diagnostic testing revisited. In Elana Shohamy and Ronald Walton (eds.): Language assessment for feedback: Testing and other strategies. Dubuque, Iowa, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company and Washington, DC, National Foreign Language Center. 29-41

56.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1993) Institutional and political aspects of language testing. In Ari Huhta, Kari Sajavaara, and Sauli Takala (eds.): Language testing: new openings. Jyväskyla: Institute for Educational Research University of Jyväskyla. 39-45.

57.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1993). Language conflict in Jerusalem - 1880 and 1980. In Ernst Hakon Jahr (ed.): Language conflict and planning. Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter. 179-192.

58.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1994) Israel: Language situation. In R. E. Asher (ed:) The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

59.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1994). A not-too-special relationship. Introduction to L. F. Bachman, F. Davidson, K. Ryan and I-C. Choi, An investigation into the comparability of two tests of English as a foreign language: The Cambridge-TOEFL comparability study. Studies in Language Testing, 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. *

60.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1994). Comprehension testing, or can understanding be measured? In G. Brown, K. Malmkjær, A. Pollitt, and J. Williams (eds): Language and Understanding. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 141-152.

61.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1994). The beginnings of language testing as a profession. In J.A. Alatis (ed.): Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1994. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. 88-101

62.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1994). The situation of Arabic in Israel. In Y. Suleiman, (ed.) Arabic Sociolinguistics: Issues and Perspectives. Richmond: Curzon Press. 227-236.

63.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1995) The impact of the Army Specialized Training Program: a reconsideration. In G. Cook and B. Seidelhofer (eds.): For H.G. Widdowson: Principles and Practice in the Study of Language: A Festschrift on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 323-334.*

64.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1995). Behind the ASTP Myth. In Gretel H. Richins and R. Kirk Belnap, (eds.): Selected Papers from the Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Symposium of the Deseret Language and Linguistics Society, 3-4 March 1994. Provo UT: DLLS. 119-124*

65.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1996) “Robert Lado, 1915-1995.” Language Testing Update 19. A necrology.

66.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1996) Prolegomena to an Israeli Language Policy. In Tina Hickey and Jenny Williams (eds.): Language, Education and Society in a Changing World. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Pages 46-53.

67.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1996) The examination-classroom backwash cycle: some historical cases. In David Nunan, Roger Berry and Vivien Berry, eds. Bringing about change in language education. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, Department of Curriculum Studies. 55-66.*

68.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1996). English in Israel after Independence. In Joshua A. Fishman, Alma Rubal-Lopez & Andrew W. Conrad (Eds.), Post-Imperial English (pp. 535-556). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

69.   Spolsky, B. (1996). Conditions for language revitalization: a comparison of the cases of Hebrew and Maori. In S. Wright (Ed.), Language and the State: Revitalization and Revival in Israel and Eire (pp. 5-50). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.*

70.   Spolsky, Bernard, and Elana Shohamy. (1996) Israel. Profiles of Language Education in 25 Countries: Overview of Phase 1 of the IEA Language Education Study. Ed. Peter Dickson and Alistair Cumming. Slough: National Foundation for Educational Research. 55-60.

71.   Spolsky, Bernard. Hebrew and Israeli Identity. (1996). In Language and Identity in the Middle East and North Africa, edited by Yasir Suleiman. Curzon Publishers.*

72.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1997) “Multilingualism in Israel.” Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. Ed. William Grabe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Vol. 17, pp. 138-150.*

73.   Spolsky, Bernard, and Elana Shohamy. (1997) “Planning foreign language education: an Israeli perspective.” Perspectives on Foreign-Language Policy: Studies in honour of Theo van Els. Ed. Kees de Bot and Theo Bongaerts. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Pages 99-111.

74.   Spolsky, Bernard and Muhammad Hasan Amara. (1997) Politics and language change: the sociolinguistic reflexes of the division of a Palestinian village. Language and its Ecology: Essays in memory of Einar Haugen edited by Stig Eliasson and Ernst Håkon Jahr. Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs, Vol. 100. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Pp. 35-74.*

75.   Dittmar, Norbert, Bernard Spolsky, and Joel Walters. (1997). “Grammaticalization and social convergence in second language acquisition.” Language History and Language Modelling: Festschrift Fisiak. Ed. R. Hickey and S. Puppel. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2 vols.*

76.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1998). A second language learning perspective on language and ethnic identity. In Language and ethnic identity: Comparative disciplinary and regional perspectives, Joshua A. Fishman, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.*

77.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1998). The role of English as a language of maximum access in Israeli language practices and policies. In Festschift for Kari Sajavaara, edited by J. Fisiak. Poznan: Studia Anglica Poznaniensia (XXXIII:377-397).*

78.   Amara, Muhammad Hasan, Bernard Spolsky, and Hanna Tushyeh. (1998). Sociolinguistic reflexes of socio-political patterns in Bethlehem: Preliminary studies. In Third Symposium on Language and Society in the Middle East and North Africa, Yasir Suleiman, ed.: Curzon. *

79.   Dittmar, Norbert, Spolsky, Bernard, & Walters, Joel. (1998). Language and identity in immigrant language acquisition and use: A framework for integrating sociological, psychological, and linguistic data. In Vera Regan (Ed.), Contemporary approaches to second language acquisition in social context: Crosslinguistic perspectives (pp. iv + 172). Dublin, Ireland: University College Dublin.

80.   Amara, Muhammad Hasan, Spolsky, Bernard, & Tushyeh, Hanna. (1999). Sociolinguistic reflexes of socio-political patterns in Bethlehem: Preliminary studies. In Yasir Suleiman (Ed.), Language and Society in the Middle East and North Africa (pp. 58-79). Richmond: Curzon Press..

81.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1999). A second language learning perspective on language and ethnic identity. In Language and ethnic identity: Comparative disciplinary and regional perspectives, edited by J. A. Fishman. Oxford: Oxford University Press.*

82.   Spolsky, Bernard. (1999). Ulpan. In B. Spolsky (ed.), Concise Encyclopedia of Educational Linguistics Oxford: Elsevier. 677-678.

83.   Spolsky, Bernard (1999). Cheating tests can be dangerous. In Festschrift for Alan Davies, Annie Brown and Cathie Elder (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. *

84.   Spolsky, Bernard. 1999. A.S.T.P. In Bernard Spolsky (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Educational Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. 603-604.

85.   Spolsky, Bernard, and Elana Shohamy (1999). The dynamics of Israeli language policy. Washington, DC: The National Foreign Language Center

86.   Spolsky, Bernard. 1999. Albert Valdman. In Bernard Spolsky (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Educational Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. 792.

87.   Spolsky, Bernard. 1999. General Introduction: The Field of Educational Linguistics. In Bernard Spolsky (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Educational Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. 1-6.

88.   Spolsky, Bernard. 1999. Joshua A. Fishman. In Bernard Spolsky (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Educational Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. 758-759.

89.   Spolsky, Bernard. 1999. Language testing. In Bernard Spolsky (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Educational Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. 695-703.

90.   Spolsky, Bernard. 1999. Linguistics and language learning. In Bernard Spolsky (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Educational Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. 26-30.

91.   Spolsky, Bernard. 1999. Research centers. In Bernard Spolsky (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Educational Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. 734-739.

92.   Spolsky, Bernard. 1999. Robert L. Cooper. In Bernard Spolsky (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Educational Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. 754.

93.   Spolsky, Bernard. 1999. Standards, scales, and guidelines. In Bernard Spolsky (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Educational Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. 390-393.

94.   Spolsky, B., & Shohamy, E. (2000). Hebrew after a century of RLS efforts. In J. A. Fishman (Ed.), Can threatened languages be saved? (pp. 349-362). Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.*

95.   Spolsky, B., & Shohamy, E. (2000). Language practice, language ideology and language policy. In R. D. Lambert & E. Shohamy (Eds.), Language policy and pedagogy, essays in honor of a. Ronald Walton (pp. 1-42). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

96.   Spolsky, Bernard. (2001). Language in Israel: Policy, practice and ideology. In James E. Alatis & Ai-Hui Tan (Eds.), Georgetown University Roundtable on Language and Linguistics (pp. 164-174). Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.

97.   Spolsky, Bernard and Shohamy, Elana (2001). The Penetration of English as language of science and technology into the Israeli linguistic repertoire: a preliminary enquiry. In The dominance of English as Language of Science: Effects on the non-English language communities, ed. by Ulrich Ammon. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Pp. 167-176.*

98.   Spolsky, Bernard. (2001). Prospects for the survival of the Navajo language: a reconsideration. In Siri Tuttle & Gary Holton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2001 Athabaskan Languages Conference: University of California Los Angeles (pp. 32-53). Fairbanks Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center Working Papers Number 1.*

99.   Spolsky, Bernard. (2001). Heritage languages and national security: an ecological view. In Steven J. Baker (Ed.), Language Policy: Lessons from global models (pp. 103-114). Monterey, CA: Monterey Institute of International Studies.*

100.Spolsky, Bernard. (2001). Closing the cloze. In Heinreich Pürschel and Ulrich Raatz (eds.). Tests and Translation: Papers in memory of Christine Klein-Braley (pp.1-18). Bochum Germany: AKS-Verlag Bochum.*

101.Spolsky, Bernard. (2002). The development of Navajo-English bilingualism. In Li Wei & Jean-Marc Dewaele & Alex Housen (Eds.), Opportunities and challenges of bilingualism (pp. 171-198). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.*

102.Spolsky, Bernard. (2002). Norms, native speakers and reversing language shift. In Sue Gass & Kathleen Bardovi-Harlig & Sally Sieloff Magnan & Joel Walz (Eds.), Pedagogical norms for second and foreign language and teaching. Studies in honour of Albert Valdman (pp. 41-58). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.*

103.Spolsky, Bernard. (2004). Educational linguistics, In William Frawley (ed.). Oxford International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.*

104.Shohamy, Elana, & Spolsky, Bernard. (2003). New Israeli language education policy: From monolingual to plurilingual? In Yuval Dror, David Nevo & Rina Shapira (Eds.), Turns and returns in Israeli Education: Policy guidelines for the 2002 (pp. 193-208). Ramat-Aviv, Israel: Tel Aviv University School of Education.

105.Spolsky, Bernard. (2004). Deixe o seu linguista em paz (André Cechinel, Fernando da Silva & Fábio Lopes da Silva, Trans.). In Fabio Luiz Lopes da Silva & Kanavillil Rajagopalan (Eds.), A linguistica que nos falhar (pp. 48-52). Sao Paulo, SP: Parabola Editorial.*

106.Spolsky, Bernard. (2005). Language policy. In James Cohen, Kara T. McAlister, Kellie Rolstad & Jeff MacSwan (Eds.), ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism (pp. 2152-2164). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.*

107.Spolsky, Bernard. (2005). Maori lost and regained. In Allan Bell, Ray Harlow & Donna Starks (Eds.), Languages of New Zealand (pp.67-85). Wellington: Victoria University Press.*

108.Spolsky, Bernard. (2005). Is language policy applied linguistics? In Paul Bruthiaux, Dwight Atkinson, William Grabe, William G. Eggington & Vaidehi Ramanathan (Eds.), Direction in Applied Linguistics: Essays in Honor of Robert B. Kaplan (pp. 26-38). Clevedon England: Multilingual Matters Ltd.*

109.Spolsky, Bernard, & Benor, Sara B. (2006). Jewish languages. In Keith Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (Second ed., Vol. 6, pp. 120-124): Elsevier.*

110.Spolsky, Bernard, & Lambert, Richard D. (2006). Models of Language Planning and Policy. In Keith Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Languages and Linguistics (Vol. 6, pp. 561-575). Oxford: Elsevier.

111.Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). Does the US need a language policy, or is English enough? Language policies in the US and beyond. In Audrey Heining-Boynton (Ed.), 2005-2015:  Realizing Our Vision of Languages for All (pp. 15-38). Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson Education.*

112.Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). Family language management: some preliminaries. In Anat Stavans & Irit Kupferberg (Eds.), Studies in Language and Language Education: Essays in Honor of Elite Olshtain. Jerusalem: Magnes Press.*

113.Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). Israel and the Jewish languages. In Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, Klaus Mattheir & Peter Trudgill (Eds.), Sociolinguistics: An international handbook of the science of language and society (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 1924-1929). Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.*

114.Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). Language policy failures - why won't they listen? In Martin Pütz, Joshua A. Fishman & JoAnne Neff- van Aertselaer (Eds.), 'Along the Routes to Power': Explorations of Empowerment through Language (pp. 87-106). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter *

115.Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). Introduction Part II. In Tope Omoniyi & Joshua A. Fishman (Eds.), Explorations in the sociology of language and religion (pp. 4-9). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

116.Spolsky, Bernard. 2006. Fallas en la politica del lenguaje (Failures of language policy). In Los retos de la planificatión del lenguaje en el siglo XXI (The challenges of language policy in the XXI century), edited by R. Terborg and L. G. Landa. Vol 1: 91-101.  Mexico: Universidad Nacional autónoma de México.

117.Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). Swimming against the tide, Georgetown University Roundtable on Languages and Linguistics. Washington DC.*

118.Spolsky, Bernard. (2007). Foreword. In Peter Backhaus, Linguistic landscapes: A comparative study of urban multilingualism in Tokyo (pp. ix-x). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

119.Spolsky, Bernard. (2007). Educational Linguistics and Language Policy. In Geoffrey Cao (Ed.), Series in Foreign Linguistics and Literature. Changshai.*

120.Spolsky, Bernard. (2007). On second thoughts. In Janna Fox, Mari Wesche, Doreen Bayliss, Liying Chencg, Carolyn E. Turner & Christine Doe (Eds.), Language testing reconsidered (pp. 9-18). Ottawa Canada: University of Ottawa Press.*

121.Spolsky, Bernard. (2007). Riding the tiger. In Nancy Hornberger (Ed.), Can schools save indigenous languages? (pp. 152-160). Basingstoke UK: Palgrave Macmillan.*

122.Spolsky, Bernard. (2008). Investigating language education policy. In Kendall A. King & Nancy H. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education (Second ed., Vol. 10: Research methods in language and education, pp. 27-40). New York: Springer Science.

123.Spolsky, Bernard. (2008). Language assessment in historical and future perspective. In Elana Shohamy & Nancy Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education (Second ed., Vol. 7: Language testing and assessment, pp. 445-454). New York: Springer Science.*

124.Spolsky, Bernard. (2008). Japanese in European language education policy. In Patrick Heinrich & Yuko Sugita (Eds.), Japanese as Foreign Language in the Age of Globalization (pp. 9-18). Munich Germany: IUDICIUM Verlag GmbH .Spolsky, Bernard. (2008). Prolegomena to a sociolinguistic theory of public signage. In Elana Shohamy & Durk Gorter (Eds.), The Linguistic Landscape: Expanding the scene. London: Routledge.

125.Spolsky, Bernard. (2009). Language policy and the teaching of Hebrew. In Avital Feuer, Sharon Armon-Lotem & B Cooperman (Eds.), Issues in the Acquisition, Learning and Teaching of Hebrew (pp.155-170). Bethesda, Maryland: University Press of Maryland.

126.Spolsky, Bernard. (2008). Language policy: The first half-century. In Piet van Sterkenburg (Ed.), Unity and Diversity of Languages (pp. 137-153). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

127.Spolsky, Bernard. (2009). Rescuing Māori: The last 40 years. In Peter K. Austin (Ed.), Language Documentation and Descriptions (Vol. 6, pp. 11-36). London UK: School of Oriental and African Studies.*

128.Spolsky, Bernard. (2009). Language management for endangered languages: the case of Navajo. In Peter K. Austin (Ed.), Language Documentation and Descriptions (Vol. 6, pp. 117-131). London UK: School of Oriental and African Studies.

129.Spolsky, Bernard. (2009). Ferguson and Fishman: Sociolinguistics and the Sociology of Language. In Ruth Wodak, Barbara Johnstone & Paul Kerswill (Eds.), Handbook of Sociolinguistics. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.*

130.Spolsky, Bernard. (2009). Language and society. In Peter K. Austin & Julia Sallabank (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Endangered Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

131.Spolsky, Bernard. (2009). Second-language learning. In Joshua A. Fishman & Ofelia Garcia (Eds.), Handbook of language and ethnic identity (Second ed., pp. ). New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.

132.Spolsky, Bernard. (2009). Religious language management. In Li Wei & Vivian Cook (Eds.), Contemporary Applied Linguistics (Vol. 2 Linguistics for the Real World pp. 65-82). London UK and New York NY: Continuum.*

133.Spolsky, Bernard. (2010). Language assessment in Asia: Local, regional or Global? A view from Israel. In Young-in Moon & Bernard Spolsky (Eds.), Language assessment in Asia: Local, regional or Global? (pp. 83-98). Seoul: Asian Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language.

134.Spolsky, Bernard. (2011). Language policy. In P. C. Hogan (Ed.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Language Sciences (pp. 421-424). New York NY: Cambridge University Press.

135. Spolsky, Bernard. (2011). Ferguson and Fishman: Sociolinguistics and the sociology of language. In R. Wodak, B. Johnstone & P. Kerswill (Eds.), The Sage handbook of sociolinguistics (pp. 11-23). London UK: Sage Publications Ltd.

136. Spolsky, Bernard. (2011). Tsina movnoi unifikatsii: vidnovlennia ivrytu (The Cost of Unification through Language: The Restoration of Hebrew, in Ukrainian). In G. Skrypnyk (Ed.), Suchasna zarubizhna etnolohiia :antolohiia  (Contemporary Foreign Ethnology: Anthology). (Vol. 1, pp. 345-363). Kyiv: Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Art Studies, Folklore and Ethnology.

137. Spolsky, Bernard. (2013). Thinking outside the box. In R. Lake & M. C. Connery (Eds.), Constructing A Community of Thought: Letters on the Scholarship, Teaching and Mentoring of Vera John-Steiner. New York: Peter Lang.

138. Spolsky, Bernard, & Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor. (2013). Acquiring literacy in a diglossic context: Problems and prospects. In E. Saiegh-Haddad & H. M. Joshi (Eds.), Handbook of Arabic Literacy: Research Insights and Prospects. Dordrecht Netherlands: Springer.

 

 

Articles in periodicals

1.        Spolsky, Bernard. (1962). Report of an experiment in programmed learning carried out with graduate students in the summer of 1962. The Bulletin, McGill University Institute of Education: 1-3.

2.        Spolsky, Bernard. (1962). Comparative stylistics and the principle of economy. Journal des Traducteurs 7(3): 79-83.

3.        Spolsky, Bernard. (1963). The length of a translation. Journal des Traducteurs 9(2): 45-50.

4.        Spolsky, Bernard. (1963). Linguistics: an aid to teachers. The Teachers' Magazine 63(217): 15-17.

5.        Spolsky, Bernard. (1963). Programmed learning and the teaching of parts of speech. The Bulletin, McGill University Institute of Education  1-3.

6.        Spolsky, Bernard. (1966). A psycholinguistic critique of programmed foreign language instruction. IRAL - International Review of Applied Linguistics 4: 119-29. Reprinted (1968) in K. Bung, (ed.): Programmed learning and the language laboratory. London, Longmac. 157-169. Italian translation printed in Quaderni "Lab" 1, 1971:18-28.

7.        Spolsky, Bernard. (1966). Computer-based instruction and the criteria for pedagogical grammars. Language Learning 15: 137-45.

8.        Spolsky, Bernard. (1966). Some problems of computer-based instruction. Behavioral Science 11: 487-96.

9.        Spolsky, Bernard, B. Sigurd, M. Sato, E. Walker and C. Aterburn. (1968). Preliminary studies in the development of techniques for testing overall second language proficiency. Language Learning 3 (special issue): 79-101.

10.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1968). Language testing - the problem of validation. TESOL Quarterly 2: 88-94. Reprinted in The Florida Foreign Language Reporter 7, 1969, 1:100-102, 163-4. Reprinted in K. Croft (ed.): Readings on English as a second language. New York, Winthrop publishers. 1972. 341-8. Reprinted in L. Palmer and Bernard Spolsky (eds.): Papers in language testing, 1967-74. Washington, DC., TESOL. 1975. 146-53.*

11.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1969). Attitudinal aspects of second language learning. Language Learning 19: 271-85. Reprinted in TESOL Newsletter 5: 1971, 1, 7-8. Reprinted in R. Campbell and H. Allen (eds.): Teaching English as a second language. New York, McGraw Hill Book Company. 1972. 403-413.*

12.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1970). Getting down to grass roots: affiliate affairs. TESOL Newsletter 4( 2-3): 19-24.

13.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1970). Programmiertes Lehren von Fremdensprachen. Sprache im Technischen Zeitalter 33: 1-10.

14.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1970). TESL and bilingual education urged. TESOL Newsletter 4(1): 17-18.

15.     Spolsky, Bernard, Paul Murphy, Wayne Holm and Alan Ferrell. (1971). Three functional tests of oral proficiency. TESOL Quarterly 6: 221-35. Reprinted in L. Palmer and Bernard Spolsky (eds.): Papers in language testing, 1967-74. Washington, D.C., TESOL. 1975. 75-90.

16.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1971). The limits of language education. The Linguistic Reporter 13(3): 1-5. Reprinted in J.W. Oller and J.C. Richards (eds.): Focus on the learner: pragmatic perspectives for the language teacher. Rowley, MA., Newbury House Publishers. 1973. 267-73

17.     Spolsky, Bernard, Wayne Holm, Babette Holliday and Jock Embry (1973). A computer-assisted study of the vocabulary of young Navajo children. Computers in the Humanities 7: 209-18.

18.     Spolsky, Bernard and J. Kari (1974). Apachean language maintenance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 2: 91-100.

19.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1974). Some sociolinguistic aspects of the study of the vocabulary of six-year-old Navajo children. Diné Bizaad Ninil'iih: Navajo Language Review (1): 165-74.

20.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1974). Speech communities and schools. TESOL Quarterly 8: 17-26.

21.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1975). Linguistics in practice: the Navajo Reading Study. Theory into Practice 15: 347-52.

22.     Spolsky, Bernard and Robert B. Kaplan (1976). Warning: CAL may be hazardous to the profession. TESOL Newsletter 10(5): 2.

23.     Gaies, S., H. Gradman, and Bernard Spolsky. (1977). Towards the measurement of functional proficiency: contextualization of the noise test. TESOL Quarterly 11: 51-7.

24.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1977). American Indian bilingual education. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 14: 57-72.

25.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1978). A model for the evaluation of bilingual education. International Review of Education (24): 347-60.

26.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1978). Language and bicultural education. Educational Research Quarterly 2(4): 20-26.

27.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1978). The relevance of grammar to second language pedagogy. The AILA Bulletin 2 (23): 5-14. Reprinted in Comunicacion: La Revista del Profesor de Idiomas (Peru) 4:2 (1980): 3-4.

28.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1979). Contrastive analysis, error analysis, interlanguage and other useful fads. Modern Language Journal 62: 250-7.

29.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1979). Overcoming the language barrier to education. CATESOL Occasional Papers 5: 1-7.

30.     Spolsky, Bernard and P. Irvine (1980). Sociolinguistic aspects of the acceptance of literacy in the vernacular. Arizona State University, Anthropological Research Papers 20: 246-51. Reprinted in F. Barkin, E.A. Brandt and J. Ornstein-Galicia. Bilingualism and language contact: Spanish, English, and Native American languages. New York, Teachers College Press. 73-9.

31.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1981). Bilingualism and biliteracy. The Canadian Modern Language Review 37: 475-85.

32.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1981). Sociolinguistics of literacy, bilingual education and TESOL. TESOL Quarterly 16: 141-51.

33.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1983). Comment on "Levels of analysis in sociolinguistic explanation". International Journal of the Sociology of Language (39): 129-37.

34.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1983). Triglossia and literacy in Jewish Palestine of the First Century. International Journal of the Sociology of Language (42): 95-110.

35.     Spolsky, Bernard, G. Englebrecht, and L. Ortiz. (1984). Political, religious and educational factors in the development of biliteracy in the Kingdom of Tonga. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 4: 459-70.

36.     Spolsky, Bernard and J. Walters (1985). Jewish styles of worship: a conversational analysis. International Journal of the Sociology of Language (56): 51-65.

37.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1985). Formulating a theory of second language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 7: 269-88.

38.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1985). Some psycholinguistic conditions for second language learning. Per Linguam 1(2): 2-11.

39.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1985). The limits of authenticity in language testing. Language Testing 2: 31-40.

40.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1985). What does it mean to know how to use a language: an essay on the theoretical basis of language testing. Language Testing 2: 180-91.

41.     Spolsky, Bernard and M. Amara (1986). The diffusion and integration of Hebrew and English lexical items in the spoken Arabic of an Israeli village. Anthropological Linguistics 28: 43-54.

42.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1986). A multiple choice for language testers. Language Testing 3: 148-58.

43.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1986). Avoiding the tyranny of the written word: the development of the mediated mode of Jewish literacy from the first to tenth centuries. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics 9(2): 23-37.

44.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1986). Teaching Hebrew in the Diaspora: rationales and goals. Jewish Education : 11-20.

45.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1988). Bridging the gap: a general theory of second language learning. TESOL Quarterly 22: 377-96.

46.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1988). Review article: R. Ellis, Understanding second language acquisition and R.C. Gardner, Social psychology and second language learning: the role of attitudes and motivation. Applied Linguistics 9: 100-13.

47.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1989). Communicative competence, language proficiency, and beyond. Applied Linguistics 10(2): 138-56.

48.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1989). Ha-tenayim lerechishat safah shniiyah (conditions for second language learning). Hed ha-ulpan. 34.

49.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1989). Language awareness in the new syllabus. English Teachers' Journal (Israel) (39): 27-31.

50.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1989). Maori bilingual education and language revitalization. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 9(6): 1-18.

51.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1989). The author responds [to Comments on Bernard Spolsky's "Bridging the gap: a general theory of second language learning"]. TESOL Quarterly 23: 359-63.

52.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1990). Educational linguistics: definitions, progress, problems. Journal of Applied Linguistics (6): 75-85.

53.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1990). Introduction to a colloquium: The scope and form of a theory of second language learning. TESOL Quarterly 24(4): 609-616.

54.     Spolsky, Bernard, ed. (1990). The scope and form of a theory of second language learning. TESOL Quarterly. 24(4).

55.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1990). Maori bilingual education and language revitalization. VOX (4): 122-131.

56.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1990). Oral examinations: an historical note. Language Testing 7(2): 158-73.

57.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1990). The Prehistory of TOEFL. Language Testing 7(1): 98-118.

58.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1991). Diglossia in Hebrew in the late Second Temple period. Southwest Journal of Linguistics 10(1): 85-104.

59.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1991). The Samoan Language in the New Zealand Educational Context. Vox 5: 31.

60.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1993). Hitting a century. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 100: 115-122.

61.     Hallel, M., & Spolsky, Bernard. (1993). The teaching of additional languages in Israel. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 37-49.

62.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1994) Conditions for second language learning in Israel. English Teacher's Journal. 47: (May): 45-54.

63.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1994) Policy Issues In Testing And Evaluation. The Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Science. Volume 532 (March): 226-237.

64.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1995) Conditions for Language Revitalization: A comparison of the cases of Hebrew and Maori. Current Issues in Language and Society, 2.3.177-201.

65.     Spolsky, Bernard. (1995) Prognostication and language aptitude testing -- 1925-62. Language Testing, 12 (3) 321-340.

66.     Spolsky, Bernard, and Elana Shohamy. (1998). Language policy in Israel. New Language Planning Newsletter 12 (4):1-4.

67.     Shohamy, Elana and Bernard Spolsky. (1999). An emerging language policy for Israel: from monolingualism to multilingualism. Plurilingua , XXI: 169-184.

68.     Shohamy, Elana, and Bernard Spolsky 1999. An emerging language policy for Israel: from monolingualism to multilingualism. Plurilingua XXI: 169-184.

69.     Spolsky, Bernard, and Elana Shohamy. (1999). Language in Israeli society and education. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 137:93-114.

70.     Shohamy, Elana and Bernard Spolsky. (1999). An emerging language policy for Israel: from monolingualism to multilingualism. Plurilingua , XXI: 169-184.

71.     Shohamy, Elana, and Bernard Spolsky 1999. An emerging language policy for Israel: from monolingualism to multilingualism. Plurilingua XXI: 169-184.

72.     Spolsky, Bernard. (2000). Language motivation revisited. Anniversary article. Applied Linguistics. 20(2) 157-169.

73.     Spolsky, Bernard. (2000). Language testing in the Modern Language Journal. Modern Language Journal, 84(4) 555-571.

74.     Spolsky, Bernard. (2002). Prospects for the survival of the Navajo language: a reconsideration. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 33(2), 1-24.

75.     Spolsky, Bernard, 2002, L'aménagement linguistique au Québec: regard d'un Israélien. La Revue d'aménagement linguistique(Special issue), 191-196.

76.     Spolsky, Bernard. (2002). Globalization, language policy, and a philosophy of English language education for the 21st century. English Teaching, 47(4).

77.     Spolsky, Bernard. (2003). Reassessing Maori regeneration. Language in Society, 32, 4, 553-578.

78.     Spolsky, Bernard. (2003). Religion as a site of language contact. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 23, 81-94.

79.     Spolsky, Bernard. (2005). Language in its social context. Journal of Baltic Studies, 36(3), 254-272.

80.     Spolsky, Bernard. (2005). The state of the art in language testing: Notes for the third millennium. RLJ: Russian Language Journal, 55(180-182), 169-187.

81.     Spolsky, Bernard (2005). The Treviso language test – some principles. Quaderni del Ricerca del Cli. 1-8.

82.   Saville, Nick, & Kunnan, Antony (2006). People and events in language testing: a sort of memoir: An interview with Bernard Spolsky. Language Assessment Quarterly: An International Journal, 3(3), 267-294.

83.   Spolsky, Bernard. (2007). Towards a theory of language policy. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics, 22(1), 1-14.

84.   Spolsky, Bernard. (2008). Introduction: Language Testing at 25: Maturity and responsibility? Language Testing  25(3), 297–305.

85.   Spolsky, Bernard. (2008). The cost of unification through language: The restoration of Hebrew (in Ukrainian). Narodna tvochist' ta etnografia (Folk Art and Ethnography)(4), 23-28.

86.   Spolsky, Bernard. (2009). Editor’s introduction. ARAL 29: vii-xii.

87.   Aronin, Larissa, & Spolsky, Bernard. (2010). Research in English language teaching and learning in Israel (2004–2009). Language Teaching, 43 (3), 297-319.

88.    Spolsky, Bernard. (2011). Language academies and other language management agencies. Language Policy, 10(4), 285-287.

89.    Spolsky, Bernard. (2012). Family language policy - the critical domain. Journal of Multingual and Multicultural Development, 33(1), 3-11.

 

Reviews in periodicals

1.         Spolsky, Bernard (1972). Review of Common errors in language learning by H.V.George. Language Sciences 22: 41-43.

2.         Spolsky, Bernard. (1965). Review of two tests. In O. Buros, (ed.): The Sixth Mental Measurements Yearbook. Highland Park, N.J., Prentice Hall.

3.         Spolsky, Bernard. (1968). Recent research in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly 2: 305-6.

4.         Spolsky, Bernard. (1969). Recent research in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly 3: 69-82.

5.         Spolsky, Bernard. (1969). Recent research in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly 3: 355.

6.         Spolsky, Bernard. (1969). Review of Teachers of English as a second language: their training and preparation by George Perren. TESOL Quarterly 3: 271-2.

7.         Spolsky, Bernard. (1970). Review of A psycholinguistic study of phonological interference by Eugene Brière. Language Sciences 10: 29-30.

8.         Spolsky, Bernard. (1973). Review of Bilingual education of children by Wallace E. Lambert and G. Richard Tucker. TESOL Quarterly 7: 321-5.

9.         Spolsky, Bernard. (1973). Review of Early childhood bilingual education by Vera John and others. Modern Language Journal 57: 43-44.

10.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1973). Review of Language structures in contrast by Robert J. Di Pietro. Language 49: 739-45.

11.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1973). Review of Language, culture and communication by Joseph P. Greenberg. American Anthropologist 74: 1486.

12.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1975). Review of Teaching culture by H. Ned Seelye. TESOL Quarterly 9: 431-2.

13.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1978). Review of Bilingualism: psychological, social and educational implications edited by Peter A. Hornby. Modern Language Journal 62: 136.

14.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1979). Review of Bilinguisme et contact des langues by William F. Mackey. System 7: 67-9.

15.       Spolsky B. (1980). Foreword to E.G. Lewis, Bilingualism and bilingual education: a comparative study. Albuquerque & Oxford, University of New Mexico Press & Pergamon.

16.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1983). Review of Annual Review of Applied Linguistics edited by Robert B. Kaplan. Applied Linguistics 4: 81-88.

17.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1986). Review of Applied sociolinguistics edited by Peter Trudgill. Language 62: 451-3.

18.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1988). Review of Proficiency in English as a second language by P.E. Griffin, R.J. Adams, L. Martin, and B. Tomlinson. Language Testing 5: 120-4.

19.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1989). Review of C. B. Paulston, (ed.) International handbook of bilingualism and bilingual education. Language 65( 3): 632-8.

20.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1989). Review of Colin Baker, Key issues in bilingualism and bilingual education and Gearòld MaEoin, Anders Ahlqvist and Donncha à hAodha, Third International Conference on Minority Languages: General Papers. Applied Linguistics 10(4): 449-51.

21.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1990). Review of Catherine Johnson Pettinari, Task, talk and text in the operating room: A study in medical discourse. Applied Linguistics :

22.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1991). Review of David Corson, Language policy across the curriculum. Language Culture and Curriculum, 4 (1): 98-9.

23.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1991). Review of Lyle Bachman, Fundamental considerations in language testing. Modern Language Journal, 79(4):499-500.

24.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1993) Review of Foreign Language Research in Cross-cultural Perspective by K. de Bot, R.B. Ginsberg and C. Kramsch. Applied Linguistics 14.4: 431-2.

25.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1993) Testing across cultures: an historical perspective. World Englishes 12 (1 ): 87-93.

26.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1994) Review of A New Decade of Language Testing Research edited by Dan Douglas and Carol Chapelle." Modern Language Journal. 78(2):267-268.

27.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1995) Review of Joshua A. Fishman (ed.). The Earliest stage of Language Planning: The “First Congress” Phenomenon. Applied Linguistics, 16 (3); 398-400.

28.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1995) Review of Linguistic Imperialism by Robert Phillipson. Journal of Pragmatics 23: 231-234.

29.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1995) Review of William Leap, American Indian English. Anthropological Linguistics, 37 (4), 590-1.

30.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1995). Review of L. Glinert Hebrew in Ashkenaz. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies.

31.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1995). Review of State of the Art TESOL Essays: celebrating 25 years of the discipline. Sandra Silberstein, editor.

32.       Spolsky, Bernard. (1996) “Review of Multilingualism and nation building by Gerda Mansour.” Applied Linguistics 17.2: 267.

33.       Spolsky, Bernard. (2000). Review of Jones, Mari C. 1998. Language obsolescence and revitalization: Linguistic change in two sociolinguistically contrasting Welsh communities. Language, 76, 439-441.

34.       Spolsky, Bernard. (2000). Review of Nicholas Lemann, The big test: the secret history of the American meritocracy. Language Testing, 17, 369-375.

35.       Spolsky, Bernard. (2000). Review of David Barnwell, A History of Foreign Language Testing. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development.

36.       Spolsky, Bernard. (2001). Review of Miriam Isaacs and Lewis Glinert, editors, Pious voices: languages among ultra-orthodox Jews. Language in Society, 30, 115-118.

37.       Spolsky, Bernard. (2003). Review of Ron Kuzar, Hebrew and Zionism: A Discourse Analytic Cultural Study. Multilingua, 22 (2), 216-219.

38.       Spolsky, Bernard. (2003). Review of Joseph Lo Bianco and Rosie Wickert, Australian policy activism in language and literacy. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 60 (2), 231-233.

39.       Spolsky, Bernard. (2004). Review of Continuity and Innovation: Revising the Cambridge Proficiency in English Examination 1913-2002, edited by C. Weir and M. Milanovic. English Language Teaching Journal, 58(3).

40.       Spolsky, Bernard. (2004). Review of The Arabic Language and National Identity by Yasir Suleiman. Anthropological Linguistics, 46(1):122-124.

41.       Spolsky, Bernard. (2005). Review of A war of words: Language and conflict in the Middle East by Yasir Suleiman,. Anthropological Linguistics, 47(3).

42.       Spolsky, Bernard. (2007). Review of "The handbook of applied lingustics". Language   83(1).

43.       Spolsky, Bernard (2008). Review of Ofelia Garcia et al. Language loyalty, continuity and change and of Nancy Horberger and Martin Putz Language loyalty, language planning and Language revitalization. Language in Society, 32 (3): 469-471.

 

Editorials

1.      Spolsky, Bernard, & Shohamy, Elana. (2002). Editorial. Language Policy, 1(1), 1-2.

2.      Spolsky, Bernard, & Shohamy, Elana. (2002). Editorial. Language Policy, 1(2), 121-122.

3.      Spolsky, Bernard, & Shohamy, Elana. (2002). Editorial. Language Policy, 1(3), 211-212.

4.      Spolsky, Bernard, & Shohamy, Elana. (2003). Editorial. Language Policy, 2(1), 1-2.

5.      Spolsky, Bernard, Shohamy, Elana, & King, Kendall A. (2003). Editorial. Language Policy, 2(2), 111-112.

6.      Spolsky, Bernard, Shohamy, Elana, & King, Kendall A. (2003). Editorial. Language Policy, 2(3), 215-216.

7.      Spolsky, Bernard. (2004). From the Editor-in-Chief. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 1(1), vi-viii.

8.      Spolsky, Bernard. (2004). From the Editor-in-Chief. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 1(2), v.

9.      Spolsky, Bernard. (2005). From the Editor-in-Chief. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 2(1), v-vi.

10.    Spolsky, Bernard. (2005). From the Editor-in-Chief. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 2(2), v-vi.

11.    Spolsky, Bernard. (2005). From the Editor-in-Chief. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 2(3), v-vi.

12.    Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). From the Editor-in-Chief. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 3(1), v.

13.    Spolsky, Bernard, Shohamy, Elana, & King, Kendall A. (2004). Editorial. Language Policy, 3(1), 1-2.

14.    Spolsky, Bernard, Shohamy, Elana, & King, Kendall A. (2004). Editorial. Language Policy, 3(3), 211.

15.    Spolsky, Bernard, Shohamy, Elana, & King, Kendall A. (2004). Editorial. Language Policy, 3(2), 105.

16.    Spolsky, Bernard, Shohamy, Elana, & King, Kendall A. (2005). Editorial. Language Policy, 4(1), 1.

17.    Spolsky, Bernard, Shohamy, Elana, & King, Kendall A. (2005). Editorial. Language Policy, 4(2), 141-142.

18.    Spolsky, Bernard, Shohamy, Elana, & King, Kendall A. (2005). Editorial. Language Policy, 4(3), 239-240.

19.    Spolsky, Bernard, Shohamy, Elana, & King, Kendall A. (2005). Editorial. Language Policy, 4(4), 349-350.

20.    Spolsky, Bernard, Shohamy, Elana, King, Kendall A., Heugh, Kathleen, & May, Stephen. (2006). Editorial. Language Policy, 5(1), 1-2.

Recent major presentations

·       Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). Asian language testing and the threat of scales, Annual meeting of the Japan Language Testing Association. Kyoto, Japan. Keynote.

·       Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). The challenge of language policy in a multilingual nation, International MDP Symposium on Multilingualism and Exclusion. University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Keynote.

·       Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). Defining and designing language policy, Video conference of Thai language policy. Jerusalem and Bangkok.

·       Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). Do we need a new theory of language testing? Or must we live with the old? 9th Academic Forum on Language Testing in Asia. Taipei. Keynote.

·       Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). Jewish religious multilingualism, Sociolinguistics Symposium 16. University of Limerick, Ireland.

·       Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). Language policy and language planning in a global world, Royal Irish Academy Conference on Language Policy and Language Policy in Ireland. Dublin Castle. Keynote.

·       Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). Language policy and management in the context of an ecological model of language diversity, Conference on Language, Diversity and Integration in the Enlarged EU: Challenges and Opportunities. Kaunas, Lithuania. Keynote.

·       Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). Swimming against the tide, Georgetown University Roundtable on Languages and Linguistics. Washington DC.

·       Spolsky, Bernard. (2006). Territoriality, tolerance, and language education policy, 16th Annual Nessa Wolfson Colloquium University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Keynote.

·       Spolsky, Bernard. (2007, November 2007). Band-aids or bulldozers? A language management approach to problems of English teaching, learning and assessment in Taiwan. Paper presented at the 2007 ETA International Conference on English Teaching, Learning and Assessment, Taipei, Taiwan

·       Spolsky, Bernard. (2007). The dynamics of the revival of Hebrew, Symposium “Framework on the Social History of Basque”. Royal Academy of the Basque Language, Donastia/San Sebastian.

·       Spolsky, Bernard. (2007). An ecological model for language policy and management, Conference on Languages and Cultures World Language Centre in Iceland,  The Vigdís Finnbogadóttir Institute of Foreign Languages, University of Iceland, Reykjavík.

·       Spolsky, Bernard. (2007). Tolerance, liberty and language management: towards a liberal theory of language accommodation, LED 2007: Second International Conference on Language, Education and Diversity. The University of Waikato.

·       Spolsky, Bernard. (2007). Applying a theory of language management to Hebrew, Irish and Māori language revival.  Linguistics Society of New Zealand, 17th Biennial Conference. 19-10 November 2007

·       Spolsky, Bernard. (2009).Modernizing language assessment. International language assessment conference in Armenia, Yerevan, July 1-4.

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Revised 16 June 2013

Research

Language management.

Public signage.

Sociolinguistic history.